The numbers and terms

One of the main reasons to perform a DNA test is to confirm and find long lost relatives, whether you knew they existed or not. According to 23andme, their “ability to detect first cousin relationships or closer is approximately 100%.” The following are the types of relationships and the approximate predication rates:

  1. 100%: identical twin
  2. 50%: father, mother, son daughter, brother, sister  
  3. 25%: half-bro/sis, grandpa/ma, grandson/daughter, uncle, aunt, nephew niece
  4. 12.5%: 1st cousin, great-grandpa/ma, great-grandson/daughter, great-uncle/aunt, great-nephew/niece
  5. 3.125%: second cousin – same great-grandparents
  6. 0.781%: third cousin – great-great-grandparents
  7. 0.195%: fourth cousin – great-great-great-grandparents
  8. 0.05%: fifth cousin – gggggrandparents
  9. 0.0122%: sixth cousin – ggggggrandparents

Finding genetic relatives link here 

Cousin relationship Probability of detecting
1st Cousin or closer ~100%
2nd Cousin >99%
3rd Cousin ~90%
4th Cousin ~45%
5th Cousin ~15%
6th Cousin and beyond <5%

Percent DNA Shared by Relationship link here 

Relationship Average % DNA Shared Range [1]
Identical Twin 100% N/A
Parent / Child
Full Sibling
50% Varies by specific relationship
Grandparent / Grandchild
Aunt / Uncle
Niece / Nephew
Half Sibling
25% Varies by specific relationship
1st Cousin 12.5% 7.31% – 13.8%
1st Cousin once removed 6.25% 3.3% – 8.51%
2nd Cousin 3.13% 2.85% – 5.04%
2nd Cousin once removed 1.5% 0.57% – 2.54%
3rd Cousin 0.78% 0.3% – 2.0%
4th Cousin 0.20% 0.07% – 0.5%
5th Cousin 0.05% Variable
6th Cousin 0.01% Variable

Once removed means a generation difference, and twice removed is a two-generation difference:

  • Peter is my mother’s first cousin, who is my first cousin, once removed. It emphases on the relationship between Peter to my mom.
  • Jane is your grandfather’s first cousin, she is my first cousins, twice removed.

Chee Hsin Pottery 唐山启新磁厂

Chee Hsin (Qixin) Pottery, a subsidiary of Chee Hsin Cement Co., Ltd, was formed in 1914. The headquarters was located on Ocean Avenue in Tianjin. It produced cement and ceramic tiles for indoor and outdoor use. This was one of Zhou Xuexi‘s many ventures.
唐山启新磁厂是启新水泥有限公司的子公司,成立于1914年. 总部位于天津市海大道. 它生产室内和室外的水泥和瓷砖. 这是周学熙众多实业之一。
Their three factories were located in • 三个工厂分别坐落于
~Tangshan 唐山厂 @ 直隶
~Daye (湖北) 大冶厂 黄石港, and
~Shanghai 上海花砖厂 @ 南市王家码头

… and their four general wholesale offices were • 四个总批发所
~East – Fengtian 奉天 西关大什子街北东路
~South – Shanghai @ Beijing Road 北京路
~West – Hankow
~North – Tianjin @ French concession, 26 14th Street 法租界十四路26号

Chee Hsin Tiles in Beijing • 启新砖在北京

Chee Hsin Tiles in Shanghai • 启新砖在上海


Chee Hsin Tiles in Tianjin • 启新砖在天津

Chee Hsin Tiles in Tangshan • 启新砖在唐山

Zhou Xuexi 周学熙, the Captain of Industry

Chou Hsüeh-hsi (Jan 12, 1866 Jinling – Sept 26, 1947 Beijing), the fourth son of Zhou Fu, born in Nanjing, was an industrialist of northern China. He served as the Minister of Finance for the Republic of China twice, from July 1912 to May 1913, and from January 1915 to March 1916. Closely associated with Yuan Shikai and by Yuan’s death in 1916, he was the most important financier and industrialist in northern China.
Over his life time, he had created many ventures, with Chee Hsin Cement as his cornerstone.

Timeline of Zhou Xuexi • 周学熙大事表

Year 年 Major events 主要大事
1866 Born in Jingling Nanjing 出生金陵 南京
1880 entry level imperial exam 童子试 – 科举
1889 Ministry of Works 工部员司
1897 Kaiping Mines, Shanghai 开平矿务局, 上海
1898 Kaiping Mines, GM 开平矿务局, 总办
1901 Shandong University, GM 山东大学堂, 总办
1902 Government Mint, GM 银元局,总办
1903 Industrial & Ed Bureau of Zhili, DG 直隶工艺总局, 督办
1905 Tianjing Mint, DG 天津官银号, 督办
1906 Park and Plantation 官种植园
1906 Chee Hsin (Qixin) Cement Co., Ltd. 启新洋灰有限公司
1907 Luanzhou Mining Co., Ltd. 滦州矿务公司
1908 Beijing Water Works Co., Ltd. 京师自来水公司
1912 Kailuan Mining Administration 开滦矿业局
1912 Minister of Finance 财政总长
1913 Took over Hubei Cement 启新接管湖北水泥厂
1915 Minister of Finance 财政总长
1916 Huaxin Textile Co., Tianjin 华新 棉纺织公司, 天津
1917 Wuxi Guangqin Cotton Mill, Chairman 无锡广勤纺织公司, 董事长
1918 Huaxing Textile, Qingdao 华新青岛厂
1918 Xinghua Capital Group 兴华资本团
1919 Industrial Bank of China 中国实业银行
1920 Puyu Machinery Co., Ltd. 普育铁工厂
1921 Yaohua Glass Factory 耀华玻璃公司
1922 Qiupu Electric Light Co. 秋浦电灯厂
1923 Huaxin Bank; Qixin Machinery 华新银行; 启新机器厂
1924 Retired 退休
1930 Shigu Hall Book Engraving Co. 师古堂刻书局
1935 Guangci Charitable Hall 广慈善堂
1947 died in Beijing 过世 于北京